Advancement of technology in the sphere of application in cellular and molecular biology has created many wonderful products to treat or prevent diseases. Numerous products that include therapeutic proteins, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, ALLERGY IMMUNOTHERAPY drugs and also blood components and tissues and cells for transportation.
These are often referred to as biologics and makes use of recombination DNA technology. These biologics play a significant role in Oncology, rheumatology, immunology, endocrinology and virology. Some of these biologics are now considered standard therapy and have been in use for more than 20 years. Others are in research and clinical trials.
Doctors have frequently used therapeutic proteins to replace or supplement natural body proteins, if found diminished in levels or lost due to the disease that the patient is suffering from. Most recombinant proteins are versions of natural body proteins, while others although not exact versions produce the same effect.
These stimulate the immune system by providing protection in a particular disease. Initially, vaccines were made from inactivated or weakened virus unable to reproduce in the body, but capable to provide immunity if exposed to the live virus. Genetic engineering creates recombinant vaccines by inserting genes for desired antigens into a vector. The vector vaccine or carrier is basically a weakened virus or bacterium into which is inserted harmless genetic material from a specific disease causing organism. White blood cells in the body recognizes and attacks any foreign antigens. Recombinant vaccines does not cause any disease, but have the antigen to mislead the body into a state of being attacked by a pathogenic virus. However these vaccines are safe and easily grown and stored.
The main focus of biologics centers around the production of fully human antibodies. These can attach to antigens found in pathogen and helps to destroy the same pathogen by the immune system. Antibodies can also attach to proteins on immune cells involved in auto immune responses, in diseased conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. HUMANIZED ANTIBODIES are engineered to avoid rejection and are derived from human cells or human antibody genes.
These are therapeutic FUSION PROTEINS having qualities of both peptides and antibodies, having distinctive features and bind to human targets.
Recombinant DNA technology produces diagnostic tests for diseases like hepatitis and AIDS. Recombinant protein antigens acts as reagents in ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISAs) for detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).